Sikkim, the small but beautiful kingdom is situated in the eastern Himalayas. Sikkim is termed as the Switzerland of the east, a heavenly paradise on earth. It covers an area of 2818 square miles 7325 square kilometers. It is rectangular in shape with seventy miles in the north to south and forty east to west. Geographically it is 28 Degree 07′ 48” degree and 27 degree 04′ 46” north latitude, and 88 degree 00′ 58′ and 88 degree 55′ 25” east longitude. In the north it is bounded by Tibetan plateau to its east is Bhutan and Chumbi valley of Tibet and in the southern side is bounded by West Bengal India. There are two passes in the eastern boundary with Tibet Nathula pass (4700 metres) and Jelepla(4016 metres ). To the west lies Singalila range which forms the most important boundaries between Nepal and Sikkim with a pass named Chiwabhangjang (3400 metres). There are two important rivers In Sikkim Teesta which starts from Tashidrag Glacier in the north and Rangit which is a tributaries of Teesta river.
Place : Sikkim
Capital : Gangtok
Area : 7300 Sq. Kms.
Climate Summer: Max. 20.7 C/Min. 13.1 C
Winter Max: 14.9 C/Min. 7.7 C
Best Season Mid February: – late May / October – December
Minerals Copper, Zinc, Lead, Pyrites, Limestone, and coal.
Agriculture Maize and Rice. Millet, Buckwheat, Barley, Pulses, are subsidiary crops.
Cash Crop: Cardamom, ginger, Apples, Oranges, Pine-apples
People three ethnic group, Lepchas, Bhutias and Nepalese.
Religion Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity and other religion are also practiced.
Flora and Fauna
Sikkim is densely covered by forest due to heavy rainfall. It can be divided into three zones Tropical zone about 100 meters with its vegetation such as bamboo, fern, pandanus, sal and orchid are found. Dense undergrowth and bush vegetation are found in a sub-tropical zone. In the temperate Zone in the northern valley is covered by cherry, laurel, oak, chesnut, Maple, pine and magnolia. Rhododendrons which is abundant is found above (2000 metres ) there are about thirty species . In the north different varieties of Primula is found. There are roughly 4000 variety of flowering plants and shrubs in Sikkim of which orchids are about 700 species with varieties of several in hundreds kinds of butterflies. Regarding the records of Sikkim in wild animals Yeti is believed to be still existing in the Himalayas of Sikkim an expedition was also conducted , there are local people and porters who still talk about witnessing Yeti in the high trekking areas. Snow leopard is found in 4000metres, Himalayan black bear is found in 2000 metres, above this altitude Barking Deer, Musk Deer, Sambar, Marbled Cat, Leopard Cat, Squirrel, Tiger, Panda, Otter, Ovis, Nahura, ovismon Goral and wild boar is also found.
About 500 species of birds are found in Sikkim. Among them the important birds are Pheasants, Partridges Ducks, and Lammergeyer. Trout and Salmon are the principal fish of Sikkim.
GANGTOK is a perfect symbol of the confluence of the past and present – the capital of Sikkim. Built on the flank of the ridge, Gangtok is 1600 meters above sea level. The town’s unique ambience derives from the happy blend of tradition and modernity. Alongside the deeply felt presence of Stupas and monasteries, Gangtok also bustles like any other town. But with many of these oasis of quite, those unexpected pockets of peace exist.